Apj abdul kalam biography in gujarati pdf

 

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    Apj Abdul Kalam Biography In Gujarati Pdf

    Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was an Indian politician and aerospace scientist who Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March Retrieved 1 January . Abdul (). The luminous sparks: a biography in verse and colours . Books For You offers book Dr APJ Abdul Kalam (Biography in Gujarati) Format, Paperback. Language, Gujarati. Price, रु Discount(%), Quantity. Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam's books are commendable and a must read. Kalam_- A-P-J-My-Life_-An-Illustrated-Biography-Rupa_Red-Turtle-Publications-__. pdf.

    Abdul Kalam and his close associate Y. In a century that many experts predict may belong to India, the realization of the vision of a better future for everyone will require a keen understanding of our needs and this can only be achieved by tailoring our research and innovations to the goal of national development. In The Scientific Indian, the authors of the path-breaking India A Vision for the New Millennium return after ten years to the core areas of scientific advancement that are crucial today: For each aspect, the authors provide the context of recent progress on the global platform as well as Indian breakthroughs, before outlining a pragmatic vision of technological development that will propel India to the forefront of the world in the decades to come. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, b. As scientific adviser to the. As chairman of TIFAC, he guided a number of technology projects and missions; his document on Technology Vision was a blueprint to make India a developed country. Dr Kalam was principal scientific adviser to the Government of India holding the rank of a cabinet minister from to

    In Such is the speed of satellite communication. If you could sit inside a geosynchronous satellite you would see the Earth as stationary. For a twenty-four-hour orbit the required orbital height is about You would already have guessed that a geostationary satellite cannot be a polar satellite.

    Therefore something moving on a north—south route cannot be stationary with respect to Earth. You will remember that the centrifugal force active on the satellite when it is placed in orbit has to balance the gravitational pull on it. It will be stationary with respect to Earth only if it moves parallel to the equatorial line at the same speed as Earth. This can often turn out to be life-saving information. In times of emergence of cyclones. If you have placed a satellite in a geostationary orbit.

    If we put a meteorological camera on the satellite. The launch of geostationary satellites requires much higher energy than that of a near-Earth satellite because the satellite has to be taken to a A geostationary satellite gives us that capability. We know that the higher the telecom tower. These pack in lots of energy in less volume and weight than the conventional solid or liquid propellants.

    It has a powerful cryogenic engine that uses liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as fuel. Propellants all over the world are in either solid or liquid form in their natural state. It is also important that the propellant mixture does not have any unnecessary matter not connected with burning specialists call these inert materials.

    Burning requires both a burning material and an oxygen supply which is crucial for burning. There is a lot of advanced chemistry and chemical engineering involved in making propellants. What are propellants? Basically propellants are things which can be burnt easily to expel a hot gas which gives the force required to power the rocket. Liquid propellants have more power.

    Both of these are solid polymers. In jet aircraft the propellant refined kerosene is burnt by oxygen taken from the atmosphere. Both propellants and the ammonium perchlorate are manufactured in India. This was attempted as a standby option in the s and s when there. They derive the oxygen for burning from the ammonium perchlorate which is mixed with them when they are cast in the rocket motor. While all the ones mentioned earlier use the propellant and. These two use Nitrogen Tetroxide N2O4 as the oxidizer kept in a separate tank.

    Liquid rockets can be made ready at any time. A more advanced liquid engine is the semi-cryogenic one. In the past aniline or kerosene were popular liquid propellants. While propellants are important. This requires very advanced technology as in these super-cold conditions storage vessels.

    In the future nuclear materials might be used to propel a rocket. There is a lot of science and technology involved in making these materials burn in an efficient manner to make a launch vehicle work. Even in a simple explosive like a firecracker. The cryogenic engine has liquid hydrogen as fuel and liquid oxygen as oxidizer. Since these burnings and gases involve high temperatures and strong chemicals there is a whole set of materials science and technology associated with propulsion.

    A jet aircraft engine has a lot in common with a rocket engine. The weight of inert materials that is non-burning materials also needs to be kept to a minimum. Therefore a whole set of sciences.

    Propulsion addresses not only how the propellants are burned but also controls how they come out from the bottom of the rocket through nozzles. They tried them in rockets and later in SLV The engineers also built up the capability for ground testing of these rocket engines. Each of these is very complex in itself and involves key choices to be made by the launch vehicle designers. Launch vehicles have many systems and subsystems to carry out these functions.

    When we drive on the road. Think for a moment of the problems involved in controlling and guiding a rocket so precisely that it can accurately place a satellite in orbit. How does one control a rocket?

    It should also be able to act on the control system to effect necessary changes such as changing. While an aircraft flies at a ground speed of about km per hour. The guidance for a rocket therefore has to be equally fast. They cannot see how it is tilting—which is of crucial importance for the final positioning of the satellite. But for a rocket. For an aircraft in flight. In the final phase of the mission.

    Hold it vertical. Now tilt it slowly away from you. Move the pencil gently from left to right or from right to left. Take a pencil in your hand. These movements describe the exact ways in which a rocket is positioned.

    This means that the guidance system must be able to assess the position and the angle of the rocket in three dimensions. This is called pitching—a movement that changes the angle away from the vertical. Now roll the pencil around slowly. This is called yaw. When a top spins very fast. India makes its own beryllium to meet its demands for inertial sensors: The basic principle of this can be understood from a spinning top or lattu.

    But even in the slightly tilted state. Try to tilt it slightly. This principle is what is used to measure the yaw. Making beryllium and machining it it is very toxic and requires lots of safety. There are many calculations that have to be undertaken. Small changes need to be continuously effected throughout the flight right till the injection of the satellite. It is not enough to know the positions and angles of the rocket. India now has the capability to make these as well.

    This gentle controlling is done with the aid of a number of microthrusters placed in. Inertial sensors can also be made of lasers—these are called laser gyros. A lot of classical thermodynamics and fluid dynamics are applied to calculate rocket thrusts and to control microthrusters.

    In some rockets the yaw-pitch-roll. Mind you. Even the way the outer features of a rocket is designed takes into account several laws of aerodynamics so that the controls on the rocket flight can be effected smoothly.

    You will be amazed at how such very small thrusts of inert gases almost like a cigarette puff can change the direction of a mighty superspeed rocket in vital ways. Some microthrusters are kept even at the nozzle. There is no relativity.

    Add to that the designing of a satellite. But it is not just scientific and technical knowledge. The amount of knowledge and skills needed to make a rocket is mind-boggling.

    For a mission like Chandrayaan-1 the science and mathematics of the movements of planets also enter into the equation in a major way. The human aspect When you start getting into the details of rocket design. I remember another incident that happened during the third launch of SLV There were two operations to be carried out on the launcher—one for the release of the spacecraft umbilical and the other to release the arms holding the vehicle.

    Both these were pneumatically operated systems remotely. Perhaps the most important aspect is the feelings and insights of the individuals involved in the mission. The countdown sequence was proceeding smoothly. Kurup and myself volunteered to reach the umbilical system through a ladder to manually release it. This held up the countdown automatically. The arms got released as expected. After clearance by the concerned. Shri M. Shri Pappaiah. However the spacecraft umbilical release system failed to respond to the command.

    There was suspense regarding how we should go about tackling the problem and the launch managers huddled together to find a solution. Seeing the situation. Such commitment is not displayed merely during the rocket launch which.

    Churning out ideas. It is a great human exercise in project management at the execution level. It is there throughout. Such commitment. Where there is a large group of people there are always human emotions. ISRO personnel and their partners small or big institutions or industries. Managing these complex human dilemmas in a humane way while keeping the overall programme goals in mind has been one of the great achievements of ISRO.

    ISRO missions have seen their share of conflicts. In actuality there are a number of complex calculations involved. Satellites are built for a variety of missions: Human presence in space—which started with Yuri Gagarin in —is another area riven with great challenges. While there are many principles common to the satellites built for these missions. Though a lot has been achieved in the last fifty years. This is one of the reasons that space programmes continue to attract some of the best minds across the world.

    In this chapter we will focus only on projections for the Indian space programme. Where planning for the future is concerned. If we tried to cover the future of space programmes for the whole world.

    The symposium was held to celebrate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the successful launch of SLV I am going to discuss with you the Vision for Space Missions.

    Space technology has a role to play in this. In the missile programme. The vision of Dr Sarabhai and Prof. India has operational strategic systems using critical technologies developed by indigenous efforts with multiple institutions partnership. The recent breakthrough has been BrahMos. India is today self-reliant in space technology. Satish Dhawan with two space profiles and respectively were.

    With these space profiles of our visionary leaders and with the integrated technology strength of the nation. Vikram Sarabhai was attracted to the development of a space programme primarily because of the civilian benefits. A much more worthy reason for pursuing a space programme is the immense benefit we derive from it in several walks of life. As we have briefly seen before. In fact. Satellite applications Though we get all excited about a Chandrayaan mission that lands a probe on the Moon or a mission that puts a human in space.

    In times of disaster. Different objects reflect or scatter the rays differently. The remote sensing is based on the reflected and scattered rays of the optical spectrum and also on infra-red and microwave rays. This difference can be detected by putting narrow filters in the camera for red or blue or. The remote sensing of soils. Ocean remote sensing helps fishermen to go to areas where fish are available in plenty.

    Therefore telecommunications and television coverage can reach all of these regions. Thus wheat will have one signature.

    By comparing and contrasting different unique signatures. Degraded soils and healthy soils can be classified too. So also polluted and clean water bodies can be identified and the spread of pollution can be charted. This data is then reconstructed on the ground from the digital signals this is called image processing.

    If some rice fields are stressed by water shortage or pests. There are many such applications. Almost every state in India has a Remote Sensing Centre in addition to remote sensing applications technology being absorbed by almost all. India is considered to be a leader in remote sensing applications. The founders of remote sensing in India were the late Prof. To quote again from his address: Pisharty and Prof. Rajan was one of the early pioneers in the spread of remote sensing applications in India.

    Dr Kalam rightly started from a very brief description of benefits from the Indian space programme. In his vision for the future speech. There are many more pioneers in their respective areas of applications and also in developing new forms of image processing technologies. This large potential must be effectively used. Disaster management In many places on our planet.

    Iran and many other countries also suffer due to earthquakes. India has earthquake problems periodically in certain regions. The US. Space scientists of multiple nations should work with determination to use deep penetration satellite images to predict an earthquake or shock wave propagation. Earthquakes and tsunamis are sub-terraineous phenomena and predicting these from space observations would be a great challenge.

    Other possibilities are the precise geodynamic measurement of strain accumulation by satellite to detect pre-slip. Space technology can be used for forecasting and modelling of volcanic eruptions. We have to mount research programmes for evolving a systematic methodology for determining the effects leading to earthquakes and tsunamis. It is hoped that well-organized electromagnetic monitoring may provide unique observational information on the pre-slips.

    Postearthquake disaster recovery. The prime objective of the EDUSAT programme is to provide support to education through low-cost ground segments and to reach the unreached people of India in every nook and corner. Communication networks The satellite communication network has helped India in providing education and health care in the form of tele-education and tele-medicine. We should also integrate the various efforts with the National Authority for Disaster Management.

    This system will be primarily for school. These links would be the window to the world of knowledge. Like tele-education.

    I visualize establishment of village knowledge centres in all Panchayats to empower the villagers with the knowledge and to act as a nodal centre for knowledge connectivity for the villagers. This will also provide direct quality employment to over one million people who will be instrumental in promoting a higher. The knowledge centre will provide to the villagers real-time information about market details on their products from the agriculture. The technology base built up so far Before projecting for the future.

    When the Indian space programme was conceived during the s. The geosynchronous satellite launch and its applications had been demonstrated.

    Manned space missions were already a reality. The manned mission to the Moon had been announced by the USA and work on the Apollo series had started.

    Indian scientists and engineers were fully aware of these developments. The Indian space programme started with these three projects: So the three major projects selected by India as the first for its space programme were quite ambitious. The use of an American satellite called Application Technology. India did not start with a GSLV project. While the design of Aryabhata was done by the Indian team. Even one in the USSR. The ground system to track the satellite was built by the Indian team.

    The launch of a 50 kg near-Earth orbit satellite with a satellite. This third project was technologically the most challenging. ISRO started building up technological and applications strengths in many areas of space and ground systems.

    A strong liquid engine programme was launched with French participation during the s itself. Many major ground test facilities were constructed. It is similarly necessary to assess the current strengths when planning the way forward for the Indian space programme.

    Aerospace technology strength Due to various aerospace programmes. It has now been proven that the choices made then were good and have put India on a solid path of progress in space science. India has developed fibre-optic and ring laser gyros with better accuracy. LCA and launch vehicles. In the area of propulsion. We are today at the convergence of nano-. The advancements in material science and technology will give a major thrust to the realization of advanced aerospace systems.

    MEMS and nanotechnology The advances in the fields of micro-electromechanical systems MEMS and nanotechnology have paved the way for the ability to manufacture smaller and smarter products.

    MEMS bring together microelectronics with micromachining technology. Once in production. Given their microscopic size and weight. These tiny machines. MEMS can use higher frequency and bandwidths and can be slipped into tighter and more environmentally stressed locations.

    Examples of MEMS are to be found in pressure sensors. MEMS is also. Carbon nano. MEMS could lead to the development of extremely low cost micro-satellites.

    Research has shown that newly discovered classes of molecules. Nanotechnology Molecular nanotechnology has enormous potential for future aerospace systems. It is hoped that such materials could revolutionize electronic design and open the space frontier by radically lowering the cost of launch to orbit. Ultra-dense computer memory coupled with excellent electrical performance will result. Molecular switches and circuits along with nano cells will pave the way for the next generation computers.

    Carbon nano tubes reinforced with a polymer matrix will result in composites which are superstrong. This has tremendous aerospace applications. The Indian space programme and its impact on the economy As long as things are done on a small scale. Do they generate as spin-offs technological. The questions to be asked are: Do they generate downstream industry and. The return on investment for such programmes need not necessarily be assessed as the profit generated by the projects. But large-scale projects and programmes requiring large funds from public sources that is.

    Of course. ISRO has taken. NASA has to show one example amongst many of the material called Teflon which emerged from space research and has created a revolution in applications: Nickel cadmium batteries are now used to power wristwatches and many miniature electronic devices.

    For example.

    THE SCIENTIFIC INDIAN_ A Twenty - A. P. J. ABDUL chortsofalecdurl.gq | Rocket Propellant | Rocket

    DTH Direct to Home TV distribution companies come under this category—and this is a fastgrowing business with the promise of large-scale employment. Such tasks have made many Indian industries big. In addition there are many downstream industries like those which use the space segment. Dr Kalam looks far ahead in terms of future possibilities in this area in his speech delivered on 28 July It was named Bengaluru Space Expo and is likely to be repeated in Thus space-based businesses are growing in India and are likely to become an important percentage of the Indian GDP.

    Germany etc. The technological challenges are: Now the developed countries are racing towards the Moon and Mars. India has the opportunity now to join this exclusive club of nations to establish industries on the Moon and Mars.

    India is still a developing country. Cost of access to space As space missions are increasing in frequency with ever-larger payloads, it is essential to reduce the cost of access to space by several orders of magnitude.

    Such a reduction can enable the global space community to move out of the present era of information collection missions into an era of mass movement missions. They can find solutions for the energy, water and mineral crisis. Mankind will continue to live on. Earth for many billion years. We need a good life for our future generations. Therefore, it is necessary to bring resources the Earth needs from other planets.

    Future space missions In his speech, Dr Kalam emphasizes the need for multiple uses of the same satellite by extending its life in orbit, and of lowcost access to space.

    These two capabilities—which in themselves contain the need for the creation of a new and complex set of technologies—will lead to space services that offer competitive advantages many times more than the simple extrapolation of currently existing methods.

    What Dr Kalam has outlined are within the realms of possibility; however, many detailed studies and assessments are needed before his vision can become a reality. The assessments would not be purely technological but would include assessments of alternate options to meet the. In addition ISRO has before it the challenge of executing its first human launch mission within a decade. Integrated aerospace technology strength would lead to better capacity utilization, and the creation of low-cost space transportation.

    We have to evolve innovative design concepts for small as well as large payloads. Both single- and two-stage to orbit RLV concepts can be examined. The goal here is to reduce the cost. Even a scientific breakthrough, for example, in air-breathing propulsion system may lead to a space transportation revolution.

    The world space community has a huge stake in such breakthrough research in advanced inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional collaboration. A concerted effort is thus needed to quickly demonstrate the technology for low-cost access to space.

    A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

    ISRO must take the lead in bringing the space community together. Reusable aerospace vehicles The global space industry has had a forty-year period of unprecedented growth and prosperity. The geostationary orbit is nearly full,.

    Currently, the global space industry has a capacity to launch over tonnes of satellites every year. However, the forecast is that projected demand will consume less than half of this established capacity. Thus a bitter price war is on to capture this limited market. The Indian concept of the hyperplane, a fully reusable system, is an innovation in rocketry providing a payload fraction of 15 per cent, drastically reducing the launch cost.

    The concept of mass addition in space has been appreciated worldwide and a few countries have started working on the heat exchanger for on-board.

    There is an urgent need to progress the cost effective SSTO hypersonic plane in our country. Aerospace system applications: A perspective With the growing space efforts, the coming years will have a dominance of reusable launch vehicles. They will provide costeffective transportation of heavy payloads in order to construct large structures in space. The future needs will be solar power satellites for generation of electric power, exploration of planets, mining on the Moon and Mars and in space habitats.

    Space missions — In the last twenty-five years, Indian space, missile and aircraft technologies have matured and now have a tremendous integrated potential for developing world class newer systems. While we are celebrating this silver jubilee, we must look forward to missions for the next twenty-five years.

    Therefore, I suggest the following space missions: Future space missions throw open new opportunities and challenges to the scientific community and the youth of India. Use this opportunity to make the nation great.

    The space missions and programmes mentioned by Dr Kalam are broad-brush paintings on a big canvas. They are meant to ignite the minds of those who are willing to dare, as Vikram Sarabhai and the team of ISRO pioneers dared in the s.

    There are other ideas, merely hinted at above, that one can imagine further. India and a few other countries may partner to build a new type of space station that can combine many operational facilities currently being performed by individual satellites. There are also possibilities of having many small satellites carry out one or two specific tasks e.

    India could also be an important part of a worldwide exploration of planetary systems and of our galaxy. The possibilities of space have not yet been exhausted. This is an area that will continue. We have not talked so far about the military uses of space and the question of security in space, the danger of space debris etc. You might have read about two satellites, one Russian and the other American, that collided in You can see it on its website: Other useful networks for remote sensing applications are: You can go down to details around the district, taluk and village of your interest.

    It is the power of satellite remote sensing coupled with the Geographic Information System GIS that allows you to zoom in. Government funding need not always be aimed at immediate or short-term gains from the investment.

    The aim of the private sector is the eventual profit return on investment that is likely to be made from the present investment. It also enables access to remote areas. Economic growth and employment generation are measurable.

    The economics of the Indian space programme have been studied by a number of researchers. Individual industries that pick up some specific elements from the space programme for their business also make handsome profits.

    If you look at the larger picture. Chandrasekhar and Gopal Raj did one of the earliest quantitative studies in the area. Civilian remotesensing applications are another example of a profitable and growth-oriented sector.

    In fact if some of the project management methodologies of ISRO were followed in other public and private sector projects. In his speeches Dr Kalam refers very often to these sound programme management principles: One of the reasons for this positive impact is that the Indian space programme is implemented very effectively with strict consideration of project management principles. India would gain a lot in terms of better and more regulated returns from the funds invested. The Indian space programme witnessed several major successes and reached great heights during the year by successfully orbiting an unmanned spacecraft Chandrayaan-1 around the Moon.

    Some extracts from the annual report for gives a glimpse into its technological capability and its application infrastructure build up so far. A brief profile of ISRO ISRO is one of the organizations which as a matter of policy believes in large-scale dissemination of information to the public. India achieved a rare feat in its space endeavours at It has demonstrated multiple satellite launch capability. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle with thirteen consecutively successful flights so far has repeatedly proved itself as a reliable and versatile workhorse launch vehicle.

    The satellite carries a panchromatic camera PAN capable of taking black-and-white pictures in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. IMS-1 incorporates many new technologies and has miniaturized subsystems. Weighing 83 kg at lift-off. The data from this mission will be made available to interested space agencies and the student community from developing countries to provide the necessary impetus to capacity.

    IMS-1 carries two remote sensing payloads: The cameras onboard the versatile IMS-1 have been providing high quality imagery.

    INSAT-1 satellites. TV broadcasting and meteorological services. India today has one of the largest domestic communications satellite systems in the Asia Pacific region with eleven operational satellites in orbit with more than transponders providing vital services to the country. The meteorological data from the INSAT system is used for quick dissemination of warnings against impending disasters from approaching cyclones.

    These network connections have been set up at different schools. About Plans are underway to extend telemedicine benefits to all parts of the country. It has enabled the population. Telemedicine is another important initiative to use space technology for societal benefits. At present. Till now. With seven satellites—IRS-1D. Using the data from IRS satellites. In order to reach space-based services directly to the rural population.

    Village Resource Centres. So far. Satellite launch vehicles From launching of modestsounding rockets in the s.

    VRCs provide a variety of spacebased products and services including tele-education. PSLV is capable of launching a 1. Development of an indigenous cryogenic stage to replace the presently used Russian cryogenic stage has been successfully realized. Several developments including recoverable. The flight acceptance test of the cryogenic engine was conducted successfully on 18 December Antrix also provides IRS data processing equipment. It is playing a key role in the worldwide availability of IRS data through Geoeye.

    Through Antrix. Commercial successes Antrix. So far sixteen satellites have been successfully launched by PSLV for various international customers. Paris was launched successfully on 20 December After the successful development of a low cost. Antrix has won contracts from Europe and Asia for launch services in the highly competitive international launch services market. In this regard.

    India has also been successful in the application of satellite technology to benefit its national economy. India has also been sharing space-based information with the international community and providing commercial space services globally. At the same time. Military applications of space have to go through this exercise as well. One cannot calculate return-on-investment for military. This has to do with determining what the most cost-effective way of doing a task is.

    But policymakers and practitioners definitely do make another kind of calculation before funding a defence or military project. Studies and discussions have gone on since the s on the use of space technologies for the.

    That is why most space technologies in the world come under the area of Dual Use Technologies that is. But once Indian. ISRO engineers were fully aware of the military applications of space. India was also denied many critical technologies. Let us look at the military applications of space in India. The missile force When one thinks of military applications that have to do with space. Why must we develop missiles?

    While alternate methods of delivery such as superfast aircraft like Fs or Sukhois have their roles in military strategy. A guided missile can be used for short distances and also very long distances over even 2. With a nuclear warhead. This is where a missile is ideal. Before the arrival of Dr Kalam. India started in a major way on the Integrated Guided Missile development programme in The intercontinental ballistic.

    His ISRO experience. That is what a missile is capable of. DRDO scientists and engineers had also built up a number of capabilities essential to missile building. But a deterrent should be in a fully ready condition and in an operational mode. Indian defence forces induct foreign missiles selectively to meet specific requirements. In terms of accuracy. In addition to these. It can be fitted into ships. Other missiles are under induction trials. It can travel speedier than sound and cruise at high speeds just above the stratosphere to avoid easy detection.

    The supersonic cruise missile BrahMos is the latest addition to the arsenal. And this accuracy is achieved not through continuous. That is the extent of the intelligence built into the onboard control and guidance system of the BrahMos.

    This is what Dr Kalam has to say about BrahMos. Fusion of the core competence of two nations Let me share with you a unique experience of developing a complex system through a joint venture using the core competence of two nations. BrahMos is the first supersonic operational cruise missile in the world. One of the significant technological breakthroughs of this decade is the design. The robust design of the missile. This technological innovation is a trendsetter in the cruise missile field.

    The foundation of the joint venture is based on joint design. In successful design. But a missile goes further up in a near-vertical position. It is directed upwards with a little tilt. It has a similar control system for controlling pitch. It follows the same principles of physics and engineering conditions discussed for launch vehicles. How does a missile work? A missile is basically a rocket.

    The technological complexity of a missile mission. When it returns. That is what makes missile technology much more difficult than what is needed to develop satellite launch vehicles. The missile has to map the terrain accurately and hit the right target. Sophisticated missiles like BrahMos have a lot of manoeuvring capability at the terminal phases.

    It has to deal with the resultant friction without burning out like the spent or jettisoned parts of a satellite launch vehicle or a meteorite. The final targeting phase is the most crucial part of a missile mission.

    It has to remain intact and keep its payload—which is a warhead. It then needs to reach its designated target on the ground accurately. On the other hand. If we rub our hands together for a sufficiently long time. This is called a nosecone. You can imagine the kind of heat that is generated by the atmosphere when a speedy object penetrates it.

    What is done to overcome the heat of friction on re-entry for a missile? If you look at a rocket or a missile. It has two roles: The amount of heat generated by friction is enormous. If metals or fibreglass are used in a missile as in sounding rockets and satellite launching missions. During re-entry.

    In a satellite mission such as Chandrayaan In a missile the payload warhead has to be protected both times. In a scientific rocket. Therefore the heat is absorbed. Through the technology of composite materials several small threads of carbon are interwoven in an extremely compressed form carbon-carbon composites and the tip that bears the brunt of penetration is made of a carbon-carbon block. The inside remains cool! There is sufficient material on the nose-tip and the rest of the nosecone that atmospheric.

    Such materials do not conduct heat. The surface of the nosecone and the tip are made of carbon—an element that burns easily with heat! The trick is not to use carbon in the pure form. On 10 January Dr Kalam spoke about re-entry technology in an address during the Technology Day awards function at New Delhi on 11 May The capsule made its re-entry at On 22 January.

    The flotation system. During its re-entry. The successful launch. During its stay in orbit for twelve days. Recovery operations were supported and carried out by the Indian Coast Guard and Indian Navy using ships.

    Remote sensing military applications come under the rubric of surveillance.

    Such information is of tactical importance. Near-infrared images can even identify the spots from which aircraft have taken off. Surveillance equipment requires extremely high resolution capabilities. With the aid of remote sensing satellites. Surveillance We have discussed the benefits of remote sensing devices earlier. Infrared wavelengths are also used to identify objects at night.

    The orbit coverage is adjusted to have frequent sighting of the desired geographical locations. You may think that a geostationary satellite may be well suited for this purpose. The problem is solved by having several low-Earth satellites covering the desired areas. A camera that is so far away from its subject is sure to have lower resolution. But remember. High frequency repetivity and high resolution are in fact contradictory requirements. Often such data is recorded on board and accessed at a safe location for further processing.

    In addition to high resolution. Surveillance and communications are two key functions for defence preparedness. When it comes to using space to send precision guided warheads.

    Knowing about and understanding the preparations and movements of the enemy and passing the information speedily to various levels of the armed forces and to decision-makers are both crucial in military strategy. These technologies have made it possible for modern nations to carry out precision guided. Those who have found newer technologies and techniques have emerged victorious.

    Missile interception If you look at military history. In our country Tipu Sultan used innovation to his advantage when he used rockets fixed with swords. But these had some problems of stabilization and therefore the targets could not be hit accurately.

    The British studied and improved on these rockets by adding fins to them for stabilization. When the Europeans started using guns and cannons. This is done with the help of sophisticated radars. This was the aim of the missile defence system planned by the USA during the mids. The USA. Europe and Russia have extensive global level missile tracking capabilities using ground-based and space-based instruments and radars. Elements of this ambitious programme have been tested by other.

    Can the missile be destroyed in its early path. The first thing to do of course is to track the missile. But it is not enough simply to track the missile. These can alert the defence forces about any incoming missile.

    The core element of such proactive defence against a missile is to hit it with another missile. Dr Kalam elucidated the principles of missile interception in his Technology Day Talk. I was in a place called Chandipur-at-Sea off the coast of Orissa. What was this test? It was to intercept an incoming missile. A few months back. This is called missile interception.

    We make use of radars. Having detected a fast-moving target. These radars are very powerful. Based on these calculations. We must then decide. There are telemetry systems continuously radiating performance information about the missile. Having launched our own missile we must guide it towards the enemy missile. Having done this. Are our jobs over? This is done by guiding our own missile through a radio link to track where the enemy.

    You can very well imagine the minimum time available for the required operations. What are these steps? These steps are to find out where the missile is launched from.

    This has been made possible because of the continuous development by DRDO of various missile systems in close collaboration. As our missile approaches the target. For the Indian freedom fighter, see Abul Kalam Azad. In this Indian name , the name Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen is a patronymic , not a family name , and the person should be referred to by the given name , Abdul Kalam.

    His Excellency. Aerospace scientist Author. This was the time of learning and acquisition of knowledge for me. Dale Hoiberg, ed. New Delhi: Missile Man of India". President A. Anmol Publications. A man of the people".

    List of all 25 books written by Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

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