Editorial Reviews. From Publishers Weekly. First in Viking's new five-volume series the American Colonies: The Settling of North America (The Penguin History of the United States, Volume 1) - Kindle edition by Alan Taylor. Download it once. Read American Colonies PDF - The Settling of North America, Vol. 1 by Alan Taylor Penguin Books | A multicultural, multinational history of. A multicultural, multinational history of colonial America from the Pulitzer in the Penguin History of the United States, edited by Eric Foner, Alan Taylor chal.
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Get this from a library! American colonies. [Alan Taylor] -- With this volume, Alan Taylor challenges the traditional story of colonial history by examining the many. American Colonies: The Settling of North America by Alan Taylor. ISBN: 0 14 Pocket Guide to Writing in History 6th edition by Mary Lynn Rampolla. In American Colonies: The Settling of North America, Alan Taylor takes a fresh and unique historical perspective by concentrating on the contributions, travails.
Carolina: 1. Who were the initial settlers of Carolina? What was the purpose for the settlement of Carolina? Characterize the topography of Carolina. Characterize the climate of Carolina.
What was the concern about interaction between the Indians and the slaves? How did the leadership of Carolina go about keeping the Indians and the slaves separate? Where was rice grown in Carolina? Who taught the planters how to grow rice? How much rice was grown in the first half of the s? What was the effect of this rice on the economy? What was a second valuable plantation crop? How much did this crop increase in growth between and ? What was the effect of working conditions and climate on slave mortality?
What else did the imported Africans introduce to Carolina? Who was affected by this disease? What was the growing fear of the planters? What actions did the planters take in response to this fear? What became a reality near Charles Town on the Stono River, and when? Who were the founders of Georgia? How was the colony financed, and what was the significance of that?
Compare and contrast land ownership in Georgia with the other Southern colonies, especially for the purpose of increasing the number of whites willing to work and capable of bearing guns. What were the main points of Georgia governing?
What characteristic did the low country of Georgia and South Carolina replicate? Middle Colonies: — 1. What region did the English neglect during the early 17th Century? Describe the topography and climate of the mid-Atlantic region. Compare and contrast with New England and the Chesapeake. Who took advantage of this neglect? How did England react to those who took advantage? What was the progression of colonial types royal, proprietary, etc.
Describe the event and result of the English naval squadron in Characterize the Dutch Empire. Who did the Dutch welcome that were not welcome in most European realms? What is the significance of the phenomenon of Dutch trading companies losing money? What economic advantage did Dutch shippers enjoy? Who took advantage of this? Describe the Navigation Acts.
What was the significance of these acts? Highlight the events between the English and New Netherlands in and What resulted from these events with regard to the Indian nations? What action did the Duke of York take in ? What resulted from this action? What situation was New Jersey left in?
Who founded Pennsylvania, and why? Explain the factional divide that set the older, non-Quaker settlements against the more numerous and mostly Quaker newcomers. What action did Penn take when he was unable to reconcile these two regions?
As you read Part III, identify and take notes about the following specific details: Revolutions: 1. Who succeeded King Charles I?
Characterize his dealings with the American colonies. What action did Massachusetts take in ? Who was the governor-general?
Explain what he did. What significant claim did the Reverend John Wise make in ? What was the importance of this claim? What response did Andros make to this claim? What action did the Dominion take to enforce the Navigation Acts?
Why was this a particular hardship on the colonists? European elites primarily perceived peoples in terms of social rank rather than pigmentation.
Once assimilated to French culture and religion, Indians were entitled to equality with common colonists. Of course, assimilation to the bottom ranks of a European social hierarchy was not an especially appealing prospect.
Independence meant owning enough property - a farm or a shop - to employ a family, without having to work for someone else as a hired hand or servant.
A 'competency' meant a sufficiency, but not an abundance, of worldly goods: enough to eat, adequate if simple clothing, a roof over their heads, some consumer goods, and an ability to transmit this standard of licing to many children. Although no land of riches, New England provided many independent farms and a secure household competency to hard and persistent labor.
Compared with those in the Chesapeake or West Indies, social gradations were subtle among the New English, who overwhelmingly belonged to the middling sort. Their modest and diversified farms produced less wealth than did the staple plantations of the Chesapeake and the West Indies, but the New England economy distributed its rewards more equitably among many farmers and tradesmen. Because New England had the most decentralized and popularly responsive form of government in the English empire, royalists depised the region as a hotbed of 'republicanism'.
More than the colonists in any other region, the orthodox New English maintained that they had a divine mission to create a model society in America. Embroiled in the cosmic struggle between God's will and Satan's wiles, New England was a pivotal battleground for the eternal fate of all mankind.
Puritans did not doubt the ultimate power and eventual triumph of God, but they also knew that, to castigate unwary humans, God permitted Satan to wax powerful on earth in the short term. No distant abstraction, the battle raged in every act and event that affected human life.
Like all 17th century peoples, the New England Puritans did not dwell in the disenchanted universe of pure reason. Instead, they regularly saw and heard wondrous signs of God's purpose of the devil's menace. These included strange lights in the sky, prophetic dreams, comets and deformed births of humans or livestock. A belief in magic and witches made perfect sense to a premodern people who felt vulnerable to an unpredictable and oftend deadly natural world beyond their control.
To pay for the weapons, the native clients raided other Indians for captives to sell as slaves, or they tracked and returned runaway Africans. Far from undermining colonial security, the gun trade rendered the natives dependent upon weapons that they could neither make or repair. If deprived of ammunition, the natives would suffer in their hunting and fall prey to slave-raiding by better-armed Indians more favored by their colonial supplier.
Carolina became the preeminent cattle country in the English empire, as the Carolinians pioneered many practices later perfected on a grand scale in the American West, including cattle branding, annual roundups, cow pens and cattle drives from the interior to the market in Charles Town. Many owners entrusted the roaming cattle to the care of black slaves, who had previous experience as herdsmen in Africa.
In Carolina the black herdsmen became known as 'cowboys - apparently the origin of that famous term. During the s and s, slaves constituted about a quarter of the Carolina population. Frontier conditions obliged the planters to allow their slaves more autonomy than was common in either the West Indies or the Chesapeake. Until mid-century, the English neglected the intervening mid-Atlantic coast, despite its advantages.
More fertile and temperate than New England, but far healthier than the Chesapeake, the mid-Atlantic region was especially promising for cultivating grain, raising livestock and reproducing people. Although the English protested, they initially lacked the power to oust their rivals, and deemed it impolitic to try, for the Dutch and Swedes were fellow Protestants and allies in the European wars of religion during the early 17th century. At mid-century, however, as the English grew in power and ambition, their rulers developed a violent envy of Dutch wealth.
By conquering New Netherland, Charles and James meant to strengthen England's commerce by weakening its principal rival, the Dutch empire. The acquisition of New Netherland which had swallowed up New Sweden would also close the gap between the Chesapeake and New England, promoting mutual defense against other empires and the Indians.
A conquest also promised increased crown control over its fractious colonies. Compared with the Spanish, French and Dutch rulers, the English monarch exercised little power over his colonists, primarily because of the persistent reliance on a proprietary system of colonization. During the early 17th century, the underfunded English crown had lacked the means to launch and administer distant colonies.
Instead the crown entrusted early colonization to private interests licensed by royal charters, which awarded the proprietors both title to colonial land and the right to govern the colonists, subject to sporadic royal oversight. The colonists compelled their disant and weak proprietors to share political power.
The proprietors appointed the governor and council, but propertied colonists elected an assembly with power over finances. Throughout the empire, propiertied Englishmen cherished legislative control over taxtion as their most fundamental liberty. The proprietors accepted assemblies as a means to attract or retain propertied colonists.
In mobilizing 17th century emigration across the Atlantic, push was stronger than pull, and push was far stronger in England than in the Netherlands. Blessed with a booming economy and a higher standard of living, the 1.
But if religious conflict and economic misery sufficed to push colonial emigration, the French would have triumphed over both the English and the Dutch.
The further difference was that, unlike France, England permitted its discontented freer access to its overseas colonies and greater incentives for settling there. Several Anglican bishops and aristocrats secretly write to William, the Dutch Prince of Orange, urging that he come to England with an army to intervene on behalf of the Protestant cause.
In a bold and desperate gamble, William invaded England as a preemptive strike to capture that realm for a Dutch alliance.
William's English supporters, known as the Whigs, called the transfer of power a 'Glorious Revolution', which they creatively depicted as a spontaneous uprising by a united English people.
In fact, the revolution was fundamentally a coup spearheaded by a foreign army and navy. The annual transatlantic crossings tripled from about during the s to by the late s. The increasing shipping and diminished piracy reduced insurance costs and freight charges, which encouraged the shipment of greater cargos. The ocean became less of a barrier and more of a bridge between the two shores of the empire.
Clustered close to the Atlantic, most colonists felt oriented eastward toward the ocean and across to Europe, rather than westward into the interior. The continental interior of dense forests, Indian peoples and immense but uncertain dimensions was far more mysterious and daunting than an ocean passage. Far from dividing the colonists from the mother country, the ocean and the passage of time both worked to draw them closer together during the first two-thirds of the 18th century.
The colonists became significantly better informed about events and ideas in Britain and especially London. William Penn explained that it had become 'the interest of England to improve and thicken her colonys with people not her own'. By recruiting for colonists in Europe, imperial officials hoped to strengthen the colonies without weakening the mother country. In , Parliament passed the Plantation Act, which enabled foreign-born colonists to win British citizenship: a necessary prerequisite for legal ownership of land as welll as for political rights.
The new recruitment invented America as an asylum from religious persecution and political oppression in Europe, with the important proviso that the immigrants had to be Protestants. Colonial laws and prejudices continued to discourage the emigration of Catholic and Jews to British America, from a fear they would subvert Protestantism and betray the empire to French or Spanish attack. As a land of freedom and opportunity, British America had powerful limits.
More than any other 18th century empire, the British relied on foreign emigrants for human capital. The new emigration included far fewer English but many more Scots and Germans. As the colonial population became less English, it assumed a new ethnic and racial complexity, which increased the gap between freedom and slavery, privilege and prejudice, wealth and poverty, white and black. At the same time that high culture and consumer culture became more tied to English models, the colonial population and vernacular cultures became less homogenous.
Relatively large farms and fertile soil enabled colonists to raise or to download cheaply the grains, vegetables, milk and meat of a plentiful diet. The muster rolls for colonial military regiments recorded heights, revealing that the average colonial man stood two or three inches taller than his English counterpart. Near their encampments the Indians concentrated horses in numbers greater than the local grass could bear.
The strain was greatest in winter, when the people were least mobile and the grass was less nutritious, but the horses needed more calories to stay warm. Consequently, the horse herds depleted the most fragile, scarce and important niches on the Great Plains: the river and stream valleys that provided the winter refuges. That ability to project military power across the Atlantic reflected British superiority in shipping, finance and organization.