Grob's basic electronics / Mitchel E. Schultz.—11th ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN (alk. paper). ISBN (alk. paper). 1. Grob's Basic Electronics. Pages Basic Electronics for Scientists and Engineers / by Dennis L. Eggleston. p. cm A. James. Wolovich pdf. Grob's Basic Electronics chortsofalecdurl.gq i 3/17/10 PM This page intentionally left blank Grob's Basic Electronics 11th Edition Mitchel E.
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Grob's Basic Electronics, Twelfth Edition, is written for the beginning student pursuing a technical degree in Electronics Technology. In covering. Mar 6, Grob Basic Electronics 11th edition free download PDF. Access Grob's Basic Electronics Edition solutions now. Our solutions are written by. Mar 12, Grob Basic Electronics 11th edition free download PDF. Access Grob's Basic Electronics Edition solutions now. Our solutions are written by.
Place the following numbers in engineering notation. Here are some examples. If your calculator has this button. If your calculator has an ENG button. This means it may display a measured value slightly different each time. Finite num- bers are like the number of people in a room or the number of pages in a book: Divide the numeric digits: Using engineering notation: This is also known as the uncertainty of the measurement. The result will be in ohms using the V symbol.
Algebraically add the exponents: This means that a measurement of 3 volts can be V is the voltage in volts. James Watt from Scotland. As you continue. The result is: But when measurements are taken with meters and instruments. As a technician. Remember that no measuring instrument is perfect. Subtract exponents denominator minus numerator: When you use a meter or instrument. V is easy to recognize as voltage in volts. The DDM may be capable of measuring Or it may do just the opposite.
So the measurement may be precise but not accurate. Example 1: When a DMM is used as a voltmeter. Rule 2: There is no exponen- tial in the problem. Some instruments may display zeros to the right of a decimal point as placeholders. For measurements with a DMM.
Rule 4: Rule 3: In summary. Rule 1: In calculations or measurements. Rule 5: Example 2: When a DMM is in the ohmmeter setting V. Example 3: General rules for rounding: If the last digit is less than 5. That is OK. In other words. Adding voltages: Multiplying resistance and current: Precision For each of the following problems. Because these are measured values. In the last example. When doing any of these. The math and the terminology will become easier to use in time if you work at it.
Subtract the following measured quantities. Do not be discouraged by the math or the terminology if it is new to you. Precision 1. They should not be frayed. But most safety issues in an electronics lab come from the possibility of getting an electric shock.
Most jewelry is made of metal and liamperes 0.
Used to measure current in amperes. They stressing your arms. This means asking for help when you do not stripes on them to identify their values. Resistors usually have color ment. Typical equipment is shown avoid any stressful position for a prolonged time. Always check power cords. Chapters 1 and 2. Your lab class may have a safety test.
You should not only know how to use the equip. At the completion of this experiment. Never wear loose jewelry or rings when working tion. Do not be afraid be sure your resistor is the correct value is to mea- to ask for help. Most classroom labs have simi. Remember that current is an electric charge in mo- 3.
Do not plug in or turn on the power to any Remember that resistance is the opposition to cur- equipment without knowing how to use the equip. Ammeters usually measure the current in mil- on equipment. Do not keep beverages. In general. Although most electronics courses are equipment in your classroom lab. One way to know how to use something safely. An electronics lab combines a classroom with a tech. It is your responsibility to avoid this hazard by following Simple Meters Single Purpose these basic rules: Used to measure resistance in ohms.
Never use a soldering iron without proper training.
In one form ment safely but also how to sit at a lab station without or another. Basic Electronics. Do not touch any circuit or components unless able to: Never disturb another person who is using twelfth edition equipment. Positive potential symbol associated with member that voltage force refers to units of poten. Lowercase k 5 kilo 5 or 1 3 and it can be adjusted to provide the required volt. Capacitor or capacitance symbol. Leads have different types pose meter. Capacitors have the ability capacity to store electrical energy.
DC cur. Used the time. Along with these are also hundreds of variations These boards are the tools of designers. A source of potential differ- ence. Used in later study. Learning about resistors and learning The symbol for a battery cells or a power memorizing the resistor color code are critical for supply.
It supplies voltage and current. VOM volt-ohm-milliammeter: A multipurpose meter used to measure DC and AC voltage. Most voltmeters use more than one Negative potential symbol associated with range. But the Component Familiarization Symbols practical use of resistors is studied early in most The symbol for resistance or a resistor. That is why they are called re- sistors. These can be used as ohmmeters. Uppercase M 5 mega 5 1. Multimeters Multipurpose Inductor or inductance symbol.
Lowercase m 5 milli 5 0. They are conductors and have no DMM digital multimeter: A digital multipur. V 5 ohms unit of resistance. A pointed electric appliance that heats electric connections so that solder tin and lead will melt on those connections. Leads are simply insulated wires used to join the rent. They are the resistor. Used to measure voltage in volts. Made of a carbon compound.
The most com- mon resistors on circuit boards have the value of resistance color-coded painted on them. The value of resistance is the ohm.
This is only one common form. The larger the physical size. In practical applications. Refer to Appendix A for other component codes.
Answer questions 1 to Resistors come in various shapes and sizes. After studying the resistor color code in Fig. The lower the value. A symbol for DC voltage source. A symbol for resistance. V capable of measuring both voltage and current. An instrument used to measure current. An English letter used to represent 0.
An instrument used to measure resistance. An instrument used to measure potential difference. A source of DC voltage other than a battery. An item used to temporarily build circuits on. A color used to represent negative polarity. VOM An instrument used to heat solder and join components. An English letter used to represent An instrument used as an ohmmeter. A Greek letter used to represent a unit of resistance. Experiment Title: Explain the purpose of the experiment: After reviewing the results.
Answers to Questions. List the third Learning Objective: If required. List the second Learning Objective: For measuring resistance. The ohmmeter is usually a function of VOM are often used interchangeably because they a multimeter.
It does not give the contact with the component or circuit being tested. The analog VOMs use batteries. The only example is a conti. Every DMM is different.
VTVMs will not measuring the value that comes through the other be shown in this lab manual because they are not end. All DMMs have In general. Because the value of current sent is known.
This DMM digital multimeter: The DMM Fig. The DMM is an ohmmeter. A handheld DMM uses a battery. They used mag- An ohmmeter works by sending a known small netic movements and pointers needles with scales value of current into one end of a component and on the face for reading the values. The volt measurements and the ohmmeter. This means there is Throughout this lab manual. DMMs also have special functions to measure other turns.
In addition. Before modern digital meters. This is the modern standard instrument of choice for is also known as short or short circuit no resistance. This is also the equipment of choice for measuring all the basic known as an open circuit.
Continuity checkers are often used by technicians. Some like a short piece of copper wire. Regardless meter measurements are done with no other power of what meter you have. If you use older model analog meters. The analog VOMs use a magnetic meter movement with a needle or Leads. Because of the move. DVM digital voltme. Protects the DMM and provides correct sensitivity. This means the scale Again. The as an ohmmeter. You should check with your instructor or the meter manual for more information if you are unsure or Note: If you only have access to an analog VOM are new to electronics.
DMMs are recommended. Red lead: Leads often have alligator clips. Figure The difference is in individ. The zero adjust is also used to set the the component.
DC use the range switch: Or if voltage measurements are re. Repeat the pro- Remember. Handheld DMMs Fig. COM and V terminal inputs: The black lead or ment. They have scales on the face and some. Your DMM may use Black lead: Ground - buttons for ranges.
V resistance area set to X For the open. In the ohms position used interchangeably. The analog VOM handheld models are inexpensive and available volt ohmmeter is an older meter that can measure worldwide. This is the way most technicians are 10 amps in the mA milliamp range. The range is a maximum value for the measure- Flow of Current: Sometimes V resistance and should always be left in the OFF position or powered V voltage share the same terminal.
Linear and nonlinear scale ohms. It is important for accuracy and safety. But some meters use separate HI and or button.
For resistance OFF if not in use. If your meter has a function switch red 1 lead. AC and DC voltage. The VOM shown is set for resistance: Do not let this confuse eral rule. Use it for the red damage the meter. A generic VOM measures resistance in ohms V. The HI terminal not get the correct measurement—you might also should have the V symbol or ohms. Meters the ohm V terminal. The red lead or probe is red for those DMMs.
As a gen- pecially for designing circuits. COM refers to common ground or common terminal for the red lead. The function means what type measurements. It is plugged into Power. The function input terminal for ohms. DMMs may taught. Answer the questions for this experiment and write a report if required.
If you do not have an auto-ranging DMM. If you 1 2. If you are using a 30 resistors. If your meter has values such as X1. Measure all the resistor values in the compo- Black Red nents list and record the values in Table Refer to the appendix for Fig. For DMMs. This is often used for resistance measurements eration of the equipment and your safety are both on some meters. Generic Handheld DMM. Although measuring disconnected resistors on. DMM with auto-range.
The general instructions in 1 1. With the leads shorted connected together.
Try this same check in other ranges. If you have range settings or inputs. Meter check: With power on. Linear scales are used for resistance measurements.
The range switch is only used for voltage measurements. The DMM can measure current. A continuity check gives the value in ohms. Refer to Appendix A. An ohmmeter will show zero ohms when the leads are not connected together open circuit. Parrallax is an error resulting from reading meter scales with needles or pointers from an angu- lar view.
An ohmmeter cannot be damaged by measuring voltage. Short Answer: Nominal Value. Measured Value. For that reason. In this experiment. Most bench supplies can maintain a constant voltage and. Throughout this course. Ammeters are almost always used in schools. And some schools may use ded- used in basic electronics lab courses and in physics icated single-function ammeters and voltmeters lab courses because they are excellent for teach. But they are tools. The DC power supply is similar to a battery but is adjustable.
It is one-thousandth of a volt. The simplest of power danger or hazard. Current is measured in units called the VTVM vacuum tube voltmeter are sometimes amperes.
Most voltmeters measure DC voltage. Common Values of Current and Such power supplies usually have their ranges or Voltage maximum values listed on the face. Wherever there is current. One way to do this is to read the manual or a few amperes is considered high and can present a simply to look at the controls. For this experiment. The measurement unit charged. A source of DC direct current power is essential for Voltmeters are the most useful tool for testing activating any circuit.
Current in the area of 10 amperes supplies may have only positive and negative ter- and above is high enough to be deadly.
They measure the common source of DC power. For information about the various meters. Values of At the completion of this experiment. See Fig. For lab work. Range or level control Current Voltage for DC voltage. Voltage only. If you are using any DC power a power supply with a variable knob. This is standard practice. Measuring power supply voltage: Connect b the voltmeter directly to the power supply as shown Fig. These vary by make and model. Knobs or buttons.
This may ruin the meter 1 10 kV movement or bend the needle pointer. When a voltmeter is shown connected in able current adjustments. Because a voltmeter has a very high resistance millions of ohms. Setting the power supply: Locate the power supply and locate its terminals 1 and 2. When your voltmeter reads 3 V.
Be sure that the leads are properly circuit in Fig. For this experiment you will need a supply that ad- justs between 0 and 10 V. For ex- 1 V ample. Adjust the power supply to read 3 V by slowly in- creasing the voltage control knob. Digital meters are usually easy to operate and require only a minimal amount of a adjustment.
Current and in Fig. Then connect the positive lead However. These Note: This represents are similar to the ends of a battery. A schematic is a type of electronic road map or. The volt- DC power supply meter is making the measurement. Measuring resistor voltage: Refer to the experiment.
You will be measuring less than 10 V throughout this 4. If you are using a meter movement 1 V needle. Setting the voltmeter DMM: Set the func- drain the battery of its current. DC Power Supply. Notice that the leads Replace the V resistor with a kV resistor of the voltmeter are connected across the resistor without adjusting the power supply.
This is also known as in series. For both meters. Resistor Voltage Measurement: Voltmeter is across the resistor. Measuring current with an ammeter: You resistive voltmeter to be measured with little or have already learned how to use an ohmmeter to no effect on the rest of the circuit. This allows a very small micro. Lightly tap or the negative side of the battery. Any range in the area is ok. Replace the V resistor with a V resistor.
Note the value of current on the ammeter and Of course. Watch the display to see if it reacts as ter. Connect the circuit of Fig. Ammeter lead used as a switch. Then it exits the ammeter and returns to the expected. The voltage should still be 1 V across the resistor. Lightly touch contact to be sure the meter is ok.
Or if you use an older analog meter. Be sure that power is turned off before making Note the value of current on the ammeter and any connections and then turned on again. For Let us simplify Fig. Measuring current with an Ammeter in series with a battery and resistor. Refer to act as a switch.
Where to 1 V if necessary. Write your conclusion based on data from these two tables. It is not necessary to turn off the power sup- ply unless you are disconnecting the circuit in order This experiment provides data that will validate the to change meter ranges.
Be sure that the voltage adjust is set to zero. The calculated values of power Voltmeter DMM can be done later. After recording all the measured and calculated values of current for Table In If any 2. Refer to Table Current is inversely proportional to resistance if the voltage does not vary. Current is directly proportional to voltage if the 6. Before turning the power supply on. Record the value in Table Ohmmeter DMM Disconnect the circuit. Because it is a mathematical representation voltage adjust to zero.
Calculate the current two of the factors V. Indicate which formula you used. Read the value of measured current and record the results in Table Be sure the ammeter reading V2 is correct for the value of calculated current. Georg Simon Note: Use the circuit-building aid of Fig.
Use the voltmeter to monitor the power supply.
Repeat procedures 2 to 5 for each value of resistance does not vary. Check your circuit. Record the calculated value in supply turned off. Turn on the power supply and adjust for 5. Repeat steps 10 to 14 for each value of resis- tance listed in Table This is the same basic circuit as Fig. Be sure that the ammeter range is correct for the value of calculated current.
Use the same precau- applied voltage. Turn off the power supply. Replace the resistor with the next value of resistance listed in Table Monitor the meters as you did for tions as you did with Fig. Measure and record the Disconnect the circuit.
Decrease by one-fourth D. The less current. In the circuit of Fig. If the terminals negative and positive of the power supply in Fig. Drawn differently and connected the same D. Reverse the terminals of the voltmeter and the resistor D. If the circuit of Fig. Medium value 8. Stay the same 3. Drawn the same and connected differently C. The more current. Compared to a voltmeter. Increase by four times as much 5. To obtain a current value of 30 mA. The less resistance. Reverse the terminals of the ammeter and the resistor B.
Drawn differently and connected differently B. Increase by twice as much B. Reverse the terminals of the voltmeter and the ammeter C. Increase C. Very small C. Decrease B. Because the ammeter is connected in the same path as the resistor. Referring to the circuit of Fig.
Reverse the terminals of the resistor only 7. Decrease by one-half C. The more resistance. Drawn the same and connected the same 4. Very large B.
TABLE If too much current passes through a resistor. In Fig. In Chapter 3. But most circuits are designed with fuses resistance. But the relationship between R and I is inversely proportional because as one factor is increased.
This law forms the basis for much of the to prevent excessive current from causing too much troubleshooting work that technicians do every day. Carefully adjust the power supply voltage so that the current in the circuit in Fig. Record the percentage of error in Table Record the value of voltage in Table Table Measure the resistor you have chosen and record the value in Table Refer to the circuit schematic of Fig.
Design a circuit that has the approximate value of current percent as the circuits of Fig. Record all the values in Table Be sure to label all components care- fully and show the meter connections. Repeat steps 4 through 6 above for the circuit you designed. On a separate sheet of paper.
Calculate the percentage of error between 2. V and I. Calculate the power dissipated in the resistor. Ammeter DMM 6. You may want to record the values on a Fig. To do this. Record both values. Calculate the power dissipated. Percentage of error in power measur- ance. It does not matter whether the measured or the cal- in Table Measure the voltage across the resistor and the measured and calculated value4calculated value. Repeat steps 4 through 6 above for the circuit sure that they are in tolerance.
Measure the V and V resistors to be 9. If any resistor is out of toler. In the circuits of Fig. Explain why the voltage measured across the resistor is the same as the applied voltage. Describe any difference between the power calculations using the measured values and the calculated values. In the circuit you designed. Refer to the percentage of error values. The total current. The applied total voltage was given in Fig. This relationship between total voltage and total circuit resistance results in the When solving for the current I.
Current in a series tors. These are the points at which current ductors. The battery is labeled At the completion of this experiment. The resistors are labeled R1 and R2. To measure the current at these positive terminal of the voltage source. For circuits that have three 3 or more series resis- cuit is its relationship to current. Use the following formula for determining this percentage: Using the information in the introduction and Fig.
With an ohmmeter. Record this information in Table Record the results in Table After recording the measured voltage drops. When solving for current IT. Measure the current at points A. As shown in Fig. Connect the circuit in Fig. Ohmmeter DMM Note 2: When all the results have been recorded. DC power supply Note 1: To measure current.
Measure the IR voltage drops across each resis- tance as indicated in Fig. The sum of the voltage drops will be the total applied voltage. Using a voltmeter. Found by adding the current through each resistor C. RTyVT 2. When an IR voltage drop exists in a series circuit: Equal to the sum of the series IR voltage drops D. Explain your answer. Found only by using the voltmeter 3. The sum of the IR voltage drops will equal 10 V 5.
In a series circuit. Always the same through every resistor in series C. The polarity of the resistor is equal to positive B. Different through every resistor in series B. Equal to total resistance B. The polarity of the resistor is equal to negative C. The greater the total current. VTyRT D.
Found by using an ohmmeter 4. The total voltage in a series circuit is: The greater the total resistance. Is the measurement current the same at all parts of the series circuit? In a series circuit with 10 V applied: The polarity of the resistor is less than the total current on both sides D. In this case a power supply applies When a series circuit is connected across a voltage 25 V across V to produce Ammeter DMM lyzed.
With two or more resistances in the same current path. This is the source. Since the entire string is connected across twelfth edition the voltage source.
This path is the only way the electrons can return to the power supply. R5 late the expected resistance between points X and Y and record the results in Table Connect the circuit shown in Fig. Record the Fig.
X culations required to complete Table Calculate the current for R5 and R6 and record the results. Determine and record the percentage of error for current using current at point Y. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. Ammeter A Y cuit. With the VT 20 V power turned off and totally disconnected from the R6 circuit.
First cal. Measure and record each resistor value for the resistors required in this experiment. With an ammeter. Adjust R4 the supply voltage to 15 V. R4 culate and then measure the total resistance from point A to point B. With the ohmmeter disconnected from the cir.
Measure the voltage across R5 and R6 and record it in Table Do you believe that the measured current is the same at all points of a series resistive string when a potential difference is present across the circuit? The following questions are designed to help you analyze the previous labo- ratory experiment in a complete and in-depth fashion. Why download extra books when you can get all the homework help you need in one place?
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