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In doing so, he rejects his own early "logic" in favor of the view that theoretical truth is secondary to our nontheoretical openness to beings. Theory and life One of Heidegger's earliest lecture courses is also one of his most dramatic: "The Idea of Philosophy and the Problem of Worldviews", delivered in the "war emergency semester" of Here Heidegger rejects his own early opinions, without ever mentioning that he held them himself: "Logic has actually been referred to as theory of theory.
Is there such a thing? What if that were an illusion? He calls the concept "a tangle of confusions, perplexity and dogmatism". But when we probe a little deeper, we find account of what it is to be in these two that we cannot give a modes.
What does it really mean to be "timeless" and "temporal", and why are we using time to make a distinction between types of Being? Heidegger concludes that the whole idea of an atemporal realm of validity is "an invention that is no less doubtful than medieval I was not able to consult the new translation of this important volume: Towards the Definition of Philosophy, tr. Sadler [London: Athlone, ]. Being and Time, tr.
Throughout this book, references to Being and Time will provide, first, a page number in the Macquarrie and Robinson translation, and then the corresponding page number from Sein und Zeit, 14th edn Tiibingen: Niemeyer, Heidegger proposes that we have to look at the roots of theoty in life. Human life, in all its concrete individuality and historical situatedness, is the origin of theoretical truth.
For instance, before a scientific statement about evolution can make any sense to me, I need to have experienced both human beings and apes. This basic experience is not a theoretical experience: it is not just looking and taking notes. It has to be an experience that is relevant to me as an individual, that forms a meaningful part of my own life. In Heidegger's words, he is interested in "the full, concrete, and historically factical self that is accessible to itself in its historically concrete experience of itself".
If I then become an anthropologist, who does measure and scrutinize homo sapiens, my theoretical insights will grow from my own, living experience. If life is more basic than theoty, then a "theoty of theoty" is at best a superficial pursuit that fails to illuminate the roots of theoty in life. There must be a way of understanding life that does not theoreticize it. This would be "a non-theoretical science, a genuine primordial science, from which the theoretical itself takes its origin".
This would mean that a "non-theoretical science" is nonsense. For example, even if we describe life as "full, concrete, and historically factical", are these concepts themselves not theoretical generalizations? It appears that the concreteness of life is exactly what resists being expressed and understood.
To resolve the problem, we have to develop a new way of using concepts that Heidegger calls "formal indication". In this way of thinking and speaking, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology, tr. GA 21, p. McNeill ed.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , p. Ontologie Hermeneutik der Faktizitat , GA But what does it mean? Obviously it is not a scientific statement. It does not clearly explain anything. It is an attempt to indicate something more basic than science - the sheer fact that we find ourselves in a meaningful world. In English-speaking philosophy, there are two traditions that sometimes coexist peacefully and sometimes are at war - but which are both hostile to what Heidegger is trying to do.
The first tradition treats philosophy as a theoretical science that ideally should be as unambiguous and certain as mathematics. Heidegger, however, claims that the theoretical way of thinking would falsify the phenomenon he is trying to think about - the pre-theoretical roots of theory.
The second tradition is a common-sense tradition: it insists on stating things in ordinary language with everyday concepts. But Heidegger believes that ordinary language is usually misgUided and shallow. We need to find seeds of illumination in ordinary language, and then use them creatively in an attempt to show what cannot be said directly. For instance, impersonal constructions such as "it's raining" and "it's thundering" can inspire a creative phrase such as "it's worlding".
Readers of Heidegger have to brace themselves for many such innovations, and they may have to give up some of their preconceived notions about language and philosophy.
Wittgenstein writes at the end of his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, "What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence". He might say: what -Ve cannot speak about theoretically, we must indicate f o r m a l l y. Heidegger never gave up the goal of understanding how theoretical truth is rooted in a more fundamental "unconcealment" that is central to our existence. This is one way of interpreting the main goal of Being and Time. But before we turn to the composition of that book, let us glimpse what it was like to study with Heidegger in the early and mid-Is, when he was struggling towards his masterpiece.
The expression "formal indication" is also used in several other texts of the s, including Being and Time. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, tr. He also conducted intensive seminars on thinkers such as Aristotle, Aquinas, Descartes, Kant and Hegel, where he trained students to wrestle with the problems that these thinkers faced.
Walter Biemel recalls: It sometimes happened that, in one semester, we read and tried to understand only two or three pages of a philosopher.
But through these pages, which Heidegger had selected carefully, he was so able in leading us to the very core of the thinking of the philosopher we happened to be studying that we achieved greater understanding of it than some gain through years of study. They are composed in a highly individual voice. Heidegger rarely refers to himself in the first person, but his tone can be fiercely proud. Humor is rare, but sarcasm abounds. He has nothing but scorn for those who work within established conceptual schemes, and he is eager to awaken his students to the urgency of philosophical questioning.
As Karl Lbwith observes, "only one half of him was an academic. The other - and probably greater - half was a militant and preacher who knew how to interest people by antagonizing them, and whose discontent with the epoch and himself was driving him on".
In the classroom, Heidegger was nothing short of electrifying. Hans-Georg Gadamer remembers, "He demonstrated a well-integrated spiritual energy laced with such a plain power of verbal expression and such a radical simplicity of questions". It was the energy of a revolutionary thinker who himself visibly shrank from the boldness of his increasingly radical questions and who was so filled with the passion of his thinking that he conveyed to his listeners a fascination that was not to be broken Who among those who then followed him can forget the breathtaking swirl of questions that he developed in the introductory Hans-Georg Gadamer, Philosophical Apprenticeships, tr.
His lecturing method consisted in constructing an edifice of ideas, which he himself then dismantled again so as to baffle fascinated listeners, only to leave them up in the air.
This art of enchantment sometimes had the most disturbing effects in that it attracted more or less psychopathic personalities, and one female student committed suicide three years after such guessing games.
What was experienced was that thinking as pure activity We are so accustomed to the old opposition of reason versus passion, spirit versus life, that the idea of a passionate thinking, in which thinking and aliveness become one, takes us somewhat aback. Arendt was repelled by Heidegger's behavior in , when he served as the National Socialist rector of the University of Freiburg.
But the two resumed a friendship after the war, and Arendt was instrumental in publishing Heidegger's works in translation in the United States. Her own philosophy shows the influence of Heidegger's thought.
These included important theologians such as Paul Tillich and Rudolf Bultmann, who adopted much of Heidegger's language in order to discuss religious experience. Every aspect of Heidegger's personality was distinctive - from his ideas to his clothing.
Early on, he adopted a peculiar way of dressing, known to his Murray ed. On the personal relationship between the two thinkers, see E. An excellent work on their intellectual relationship is D.
Gadamer writes, "It was a piece of clothing designed by the painter Otto Ubbelohde, one that tended slightly to a rural folk style, and in it Heidegger in fact had something of the modest magnificence of a farmer dressed up for Sunday.
Students who mimicked Heidegger's passionate tones were said to be "Heideggerized". It seems that philosophers who want no following always attract followers.
As Gadamer puts it, "Moths fly into the light". The recently discovered essay "Phenomenological Interpretations with Respect to Aristotle: Indication of the Hermeneutical Situation,,6o was meant as an introduction to a projected book that would present a phenomenological reading of Aristotle.
It is not primarily about Aristotle, but about Heidegger's own approach to the human condition. Heidegger sent the essay to Paul Natorp at the University of Marburg, and on the strength of this piece Heidegger secured a teaching position there in This document reflects the fact that Heidegger's rereading of ancient philosophy played an invaluable role in his own development; as I have pointed out, history of philosophy and systematic thought are always intertwined for Heidegger.
The text is as cumbersome and jargon-laden as its title. What makes it so important is that it is the first statement of several crucial themes of Being and Time, including the distinction Gadamer, Philosophical Apprenticeships, p. Letter from Husser! Baur, Man and World 25, , pp. Another landmark is the lecture "The Concept of Time" According to Theodore Kisiel, we can distinguish three separate stages in the composition of Being and Time itself.
Heidegger's first efforts focused on the historical character of human existence; naturally enough, he borrowed heavily from Dilthey.
The second draft oriented the book towards the question of Being in general, and gave it a Husserlian, phenomenological emphasis. Although Heidegger has often been called an existentialist, most of the language of "existence" was added to his book only in this final draft. Existenzphilosophie had been afoot in Germany ever since the publication of his friend Karl Jaspers' Psychology of Worldviews in , but Heidegger was always reluctant to associate himself with the trend.
We will discuss this topic further in Chapter 5. Composing Being and Time was an arduous task, but the motto "publish or perish" applied as well in the Germany of the s as it does today.
Heidegger came under increasing pressure to get his work into print. In January , authorities in Berlin rejected the University of Marburg's proposal to grant Heidegger a tenured full professorship, in view of his "not very large literary accomplishments". In June, the university renewed its request to appoint Heidegger to a chair in philosophy - and in November, the Berlin bureaucracy renewed its rejection. Meanwhile, the completed portions of Being and Time were going to press.
They finally appeared in April , as part"Df the Yearbook for Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, edited by Husserl, and also as a separate work. Being and Time instantly attracted attention. Heidegger's reputation grew far beyond his former cult following; he suddenly attained international renown, and his professional worries were gone. In , he was crowned with one of the greatest honors for which a phenomenologist could hope - he was invited back to Freiburg to occupy the chair in philosophy formerly held by the now-retired Husser!.
The Concept of Time, bilingual edn, tr. McNeill Oxford: Blackwell, This draft was delivered as the lecture course History of the Concept of Time. Two translations of Being and Time are available. It is often worth consulting both translations when one is reading a passage closely. The Macquarrie and Robinson translation is very well known, and usually very accurate and literal. It captures some subtle distinctions that the Stambaugh translation does not for example, the difference between Zeitlichkeit and Temporalitdt, rendered by Macquarrie and Robinson as "temporality" and "Temporality".
Macquarrie and Robinson include many explanatory footnotes of their own, which are often quite helpful, and a GermanEnglish glossary; Stambaugh's version does not have these features.
However, the Stambaugh translation is often more readable, improves the translations of some key words, corrects some errors, and includes the marginal notes that Heidegger made in his personal copy of the book these notes are brief, and of limited use to beginners. References to Being and Time in Chapters 3 and 4 will be parenthesized. They include, first, the Macquarrie and Robinson pages, and then, the pages of the later German editions of Sein und Zeit, published by Max Niemeyer.
Only a few outright errors in the Macquarrie and Robinson translation are worth noting. Page 87 of the translation, lines , "the less one presupposes when one believes that one is making headway" should read, "the more one believes that one is proceeding without presuppositions". Page , line 35, "change and performance" should read "change and permanence".
Page , line 1, "entities are of Dasein's kind of Being" should read, "there are entities with Dasein's kind of Being". The seventh edition establishes the pagination for all later editions, which are essentially reprints of the seventh. The fourteenth edition is the first to include Heidegger's marginal notes. My commentary is designed to be read along with Heidegger's original text. When neither Being and Time nor this commentary sheds light on the issues, perhaps the reader's next recourse should be some of Heidegger's other writings.
The lecture courses History of the Concept of Time and The Basic Problems ofPhenomenology are closely related to Being and Time, and it is a good idea to consult them for their alternative formulations and added examples.
The problem and the goal In his Introduction, Heidegger wants to persuade us that the question of Being is meaningful and important, and he wants to get clear about how to ask and pursue such a difficult question in the right way. Since this opening part of the book is indispensable and especially challenging, we will review it more thoroughly than some of the subsequent chapters. Being and Time begins with a quotation from Plato's Sophist: "For manifestly you have long been aware of what you mean when you use the expression 'being'.
Secondly, the problem of Being seems at first to be no problem at all - but when we actually try to articulate what we mean by "be", we soon find ourselves at a loss for words.
The challenge facing Plato, Heidegger and us is to overcome our natural sense that we already understand it all. Nothing could be more familiar than our phrases, "there is..
But this familiarity with Being is no excuse to avoid philosophical thought - it is an opportunity for thought. Our familiarity with Being is itself mysterious, and calls for close scrutiny. In the course of this book, Heidegger will look very closely at our tendency to take things for granted, and at the rare moments when we resist this tendency.
What does Heidegger mean by "meaning" Sinn? We can anticipate his discussion by 4. Macquarrie and Robinson's "being" translates Heidegger's seiend, which in turn translates the Greek on, the neuter present participle of einai, "to be". On is often ambiguous between "that which is" and "what it means to be". Heidegger tells us that Western metaphysics has suffered from failing to distinguish clearly between the two. Heidegger, Plato's Sophist, pp. To ask "what is the meaning of x?
However, in order to understand something we must have the proper context for it. Heidegger refers to such a context as a "horizon". For instance, in a foreign country I may ask, "What is the meaning of that gesture?
Now I can place the gesture within the horizon of the activity of downloading things, and the gesture is revealed to me - I understand it. When things have meaning, they are somehow revealed as relevant to our lives, as playing a role in our world, as making a difference to us.
This is particularly clear when we use the word "meaning" in an emphatic sense, as when I say that an unexpected visit from a long-lost friend was very meaningful; the visit stood out as prominent, it revealed itself intensely to me, because it touched on a dimension of my life that is important to who I am. But strictly speaking, everything we encounter is meaningful to us, to some degree. Even a piece of trash that I briefly spot out of the corner of my eye has meaning for me - otherwise I would not have noticed it at all.
When we ask, "What is the meaning of Being? Being plays a role in our lives, but we understand it only darkly and vaguely. In order to reveal Being more clearly, we have to place it within the appropriate context, or horizon. That is, Heidegger is proposing that Being has to be grasped in tenns of time: our sense of what it is to be must depend on temporality.
Of course, at this point we do not know what the proper interpretation of time is, either - but at least Heidegger has given us a rough indication of his goal.
Does Heidegger reach this goal? Let us turn to the very last sentence of the bbok: "Does time itself manifest itself as the horizon of Being? After hundreds of pages, Heidegger sounds more tentative than he did at the start! The fact is that Being and Time is a fragment, a dead end, a "woodpath" that never makes it out of the woods. Heidegger will never show to his satisfaction that time is the horizon of Being.
But some of us appreciate a good question at least as much as a good answer, and along the way to the dead end, there is so much to discover in the woods When we say something "has Being", it seems all we mean is that it exists, it is there, it is real, it is an actual thing instead of nothing. What else is there to say? Should we really waste our time studying the "meaning of Being"?
Shouldn't we turn instead to questions about beings, concrete things that actually exist? Let's devote our energies to determining what there is and what we can know about it - one might insist.
Many details of his discussion will be clear only to readers who know something about Aristotelian and medieval metaphysics. Throughout the book, Heidegger writes for an audience that has received an education in the history of philosophy as thorough as his own. The good news for those of us who have not is that one can appreciate Heidegger's most important ideas without this kind of background knowledge. However, as one's knowledge of other philosophers grows, one's understanding of Heidegger will be enriched - and vice versa.
One might suppose that the business of a philosopher is to begin with the obvious and build upon it, eventually reaching remote and unfamiliar territory. But for Heidegger, we have to begin with familiar territory and stay on it. The closer we look at it, the more we realize how surprising and difficult it is.
Nothing could be more obvious than Being - and nothing could be harder to clarify. Heidegger wants to evoke a sense of surprise, or even shock, at what we take to be self-evident. Section 1 is also a good place to begin observing the wide range of contexts in which the word "Being" can be used. In this sentence, "am" serves as a copula connecting the subject "I" and the qualifier "merry".
It is a commonplace in contemporary philosophy and in symbolic logic to distinguish this use of "be" from the existential use, as in the assertion "I am".
Cottingham et al. A third use of "be" is found in claims of identity, such as "The moon is Earth's natural satellite". But it seems that Heidegger is not making any such distinctions. Is his project hopelessly confused from the start, then? Is the "question of Being" just a mystification based on the peculiarities of Indo-European languages? After all, many languages dispense with the luxury of a copula.
In response, Heidegger might say that these distinctions among senses of "be", which seem so self-evident, are worth rethinking. A complex history lies behind them. One way we can call these distinctions into question is by noticing that even an assertion about unicorns draws our attention to something that exists not an animal, of course, but a myth, image or concept.
Even a round square involves existence the existence of a contradictory pair of concepts, not of a geometrical figure.
Unicorns, round squares, the Last Judgment, Napoleon - all must involve existence, in some sense, in order for us to discuss them.! The sense of "be" as "exist" may be so fundamental that it is presupposed in any other sense of "be". Of course, at this point, all this is pure speculation - but it invites us to ask the question of the meaning of Being, and not to dismiss it out of hand.
It is also important to see that Heidegger is not just asking about the word "Being", or Sein. Language is important to Heidegger, especially in his later thought - but the question of Being is not just a question about language.
A Chinese garment worker, in whose language subject and predicate can be connected without a copula, still understands Being in every sentence she uses, because her sentences are about entities, beings, things that are. These entities, and countless others, are available to her as entities, as things that matter to her, as items that are meaningful and real in her world.
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